The History of “Personalized Learning” [...]

What is the history of "personalized learning"? (When did it change from being "individualized learning," for example?)

According to Wikipedia, the term dates from the 1960s. But Google's Ngram Viewer shows it was in use prior to that.

Was the bump in the 1970s due to the commercialization of early teaching machines? And similarly, was the increase in the late 1990s onward a result of computer-based instruction? Or was this the influence of the Gates Foundation? (Or both?)

Programming the Child [...]

Seymour Papert in Mindstorms:

In many schools today, the phrase "computer-aided instruction" means making the computer teach the child. One might say the computer is being used to program the child. In my vision, the child programs the computer and, in doing so, both acquires a sense of mastery over a piece of the most modern and powerful technology and establishes an intimate contact with some of the deepest ideas from science, from mathematics, and from the art of intellectual model building.